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Proposed COVID-19 Treatment Targets

The graphic below represents a continuous dialogue of Physicians in the South Florida COVID Collaborative. It is an attempt to illustrate the latest thoughts on targeted therapies in the COVID-19 disease process. It is published here with permission from the authors, who intend to modify and change it as new information becomes available and new theories are generated.

Authors: Michael Estreicher, MD and Boaz Roesenblat, MD

Illustrator: Carlos Marmolejo


  1. Yao X, Ye F, Zhang M, et al. In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clin Infect Dis. 2020; PubMed
  2. Expert consensus on chloroquine phosphate for the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2020;43(3):185-188. PubMed
  3. Xue J, Moyer A, Peng B, Wu J, Hannafon BN, Ding W-Q (2014) Chloroquine Is a Zinc Ionophore. PLoS ONE 9(10): e109180. Full Text
  4. Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;:105949. PubMed
  5. Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res. 2020; PubMed
  6. Cai, Qingxian; Yang, Minghui, et al. Experimental Treatment with Favipiravir for COVID-19: An Open-Label Control Study. Engineering. . Full Text . Publication
  7. Young BE, Ong SWX, Kalimuddin S, et al. Epidemiologic Features and Clinical Course of Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore. JAMA. 2020; PubMed
  8. Wenzhong, liu; hualan, Li: COVID-19: Attacks the 1-Beta Chain of Hemoglobin and Captures the Porphyrin to Inhibit Human Heme Metabolism. ChemRxiv. Preprint. Full Text
  9. Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, et al. Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern Med. 2020; PubMed
  10. Fowler AA, Truwit JD, Hite RD, et al. Effect of Vitamin C Infusion on Organ Failure and Biomarkers of Inflammation and Vascular Injury in Patients With Sepsis and Severe Acute Respiratory Failure: The CITRIS-ALI Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019;322(13):1261-1270. PubMed
  11. Tang N, Bai H, Chen X, Gong J, Li D, Sun Z. Anticoagulant treatment is associated with decreased mortality in severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients with coagulopathy. J Thromb Haemost. 2020; PubMed
  12. Xu, Xiaoling,Han, Mingfeng,Li, Tiantian,Sun, Wei,Wang, Dongsheng,Fu, Binqing,Zhou, Yonggang,Zheng, Xiaohu,Yang, Yun,Li, Xiuyong,Zhang, Xiaohua,Pan, Aijun,Wei, Haiming.(2020).Effective Treatment of Severe COVID-19 Patients with Tocilizumab. Publication
  13. Steven Quay, MD, PhD. COVId Hope Trial. Nebulized Heparin and N-acetyl-cysteine Protocol. Link

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